The Évora Museum collections contain around twenty thousand pieces, with the collections of Painting, Sculpture and Archaeology being outstanding.

As well as the aesthetic value and historical importance of many of the works, the fact that the principal nucleus originates from the highly diverse and widely-embracing 18th century collection assembled by Frei Manuel do Cenáculo, Archbishop of Évora, makes it unique within the whole panorama of Portuguese museums. 
It is in the act and system of organisation of the collections, in a way that links all fields of knowledge, that the way of thinking of the Library-Museum and its didactic function in the second half of the 18th century in Portugal is expressed.

The Numismatic collections, sadly looted during the French invasion, the collections of drawings and engravings and the collection of natural objects, where diverse specimens from Natural Science are brought together, are also part of this initial nucleus and this all-embracing approach.

The dissolution of religious orders contributed in a significant way to enlarging the collection, particularly benefiting the collections of Painting, Sculpture and the Decorative Arts, with the establishment of a range of important nuclei, such as Goldsmithery, Ceramics, Furniture and Textiles.